一站式論文代寫,英国、美国、澳洲留学生Essay代寫—FreePass代写

R代寫 - Biol/Stat 2244A (FW20) – Lab Assignment 4
時間:2020-12-05
Objectives Lab Assignment 4 provides an opportunity to experience the Conclude stage of the Scientific Inquiry Framework (“PPDAC”), in addition to applying concepts from earlier stages. Specifically, this includes: i. applying your understanding of vocabulary and concepts associated with interpreting analytical results; ii. reporting conclusions in appropriate scientific formats. To achieve these objectives, you will need to draw on content pre-lab module that possible statistical errors, power and effect size, as well as from tools and concepts described in previous lab lessons and course lecture material. Background for Assignment In the first Lab Assignment, you were introduced to a little background information that led/explained the logic behind the following Research Objective for 2244 labs: Characterize the effect of practicing yoga on the balance/stability of visually impaired people. In Lab Assignment 1, you were tasked with Planning a sampling and study design to collect data to address some research questions related to this Objective. In Lab Assignment 2, you were introduced to the sampling and study design for a research study related to this objective and provided datafiles from that study. You should re-acquaint yourself with the sampling and study design that generated the data, and the Data Description file you were provided. In lab assignment 3, you conducted two detailed statistical analyses. Instructions for Assignment To help you approach this Assignment in a logical/organized fashion, you are encouraged to follow these steps (in the order presented). 1. Refresh your memory (as needed) about the data we are working with, as described in the Data Description. 2. Read through the remainder of this Assignment file, including the “Reminders/Tips for Success”, the Assignment Questions, and the comments related to Marking Rubrics so that you know what you are being asked to do. 3. Open the “Answer template” file. Use this file to type/enter your answers to the Assignment Questions; it is set up with the proper headings for this Assignment; you just need to input your answers (use whatever space you need to do so). 4. Answer the Assignment Questions (below). Reminders/Tips for Success 1 Biol/Stat 2244A (FW20) – Lab Assignment 4 1. Make interpreting your R code easy and ensure that it is functional. The best approach is to generate an R script file for each numbered Question that requires use of R in any way. Put everything in that R script file that takes you from loading packages to completing the question. Annotate your more complicated lines of code with #comments (as demonstrated in the first in-lab session and in the example provided in the Assignment Guidelines and Format file). Then, simply copy/paste the contents of that script file into your answer (and include the Output if applicable) when asked for R code. We should then be able to copy/paste what you’ve included, and the code should run without problems! 2. Your answers should be written specifically for the research study/context (in terms of variables, sample, units, measurements, etc.) with which we are dealing. For example, it’s insufficient to talk about the “response variable”; we should be talking about the actual name of that variable, e.g. concentration of testosterone (using an example from our in-class case study on heel height and male behavior). This idea of using the context or “language” of the Problem has repeatedly been illustrated in more recent video lectures. Being specific means using the context of the research; a sentence like, “the distribution of student heights in my sample of 2244 students needs to be symmetric” is explicit about what needs to be symmetric AND uses the vocabulary of the study. 3. Demonstrate your understanding of course content through application, not definition. Questions which asks you to discuss something with reference to particular course concepts (e.g. sampling variability) requires an application of those course concepts to the current scenario/situation. That means that simply providing the definition of those concepts is not going to result in points awarded for the Question. Your answers should demonstrate you understand that concept and why it applies (or doesn’t!) or is useful in the particular context. 4. Use what we have been doing in lecture as cues to understand the questions. Everything you are asked to do in this Assignment is somehow illustrated/ discussed during a lecture lesson and/or a lab lesson. Your first line for trying to understand what a question is asking is to go back to your notes/videos. 5. Show us what you know, completely. Most inference procedures have more than one ‘condition’ that must be met for the underlying model to be valid. If we violate any of the conditions, we shouldn’t use the procedure. In these situations, it may seem ‘redundant’ to continue to check the other conditions of a model. Remember that these Assignments are assessing your understanding and application of course material. Occasionally, we violate conditions for a model (it’s bound to happen with real data!). Be sure to assess ALL conditions of a model completely, regardless of whether one or more is violated. Show us what you know! 6. If you get stuck with R, at least tell us what you wanted to do. We recognize this is your first course that involves using R (and for many of you, any kind of programming language). Some of these Assignments questions will be tough, others should be quite accessible with some careful thought and application of what you are learning. If you get stuck and run out of time to get help to “unstick”, don’t leave an answer blank. Tell us what you were trying to do, show us the code you were trying to use, or what functions and types of arguments you think would be relevant. That is, walk us through your thought process. It likely won’t be worth full marks, but some part marks may be obtainable. 7. How to write ‘symbols’ in a document. For some questions, you may need to use symbols to represent specific values. If you use a word processing software like Word (i.e. .docx) to create your assignment file, you will likely find most of the symbols you would need can be inserted either from the Insert/Symbol menu, or, by using the Equation Editor (also part of the Insert menu). Alternatively, if you aren’t sure how to get mathematical symbols in your word processing software, you can use the following “phonetic” symbols; when we see these “words”, we will interpret them as the corresponding symbols. In all cases, feel free to use subscripts liberally to help communicate with these symbols. 2 Biol/Stat 2244A (FW20) – Lab Assignment 4 3 symbol “phonetic” version σ sigma μ mu ?? x-bar ?? p-hat ?? epsilon In addition, you are always welcome—at the end of a given question—to provide a short commentary justifying/explaining any choices you made for which variables, subsets, etc. or reasoning you used to answer a question. Help us understand your thought process when working with our data. Assignment Questions Question 1. In the abstract, Jeter et al. claim the “groups were equivalent at baseline (all p > 0.05)”. By groups, they are referring to the “AYT” and “waitlist” groups. In the methods section, they describe the analysis that they used to make that claim: “Independent t?tests were conducted to determine baseline differences between groups” (page 11). By “independent t?tests” they mean the test for a difference between two means that you learned in class. In the results section, they elaborate very little on the claim from the abstract: “There were no significant differences at baseline between groups for all COP variables (all p > 0.05).” (page 13). By COP variables, they mean Firm_EO, Firm_EC, Foam_EO, and Foam_EC. No further details about this part of the analysis are presented in the paper. a. Briefly describe (1 or 2 sentences) why it is important to investigate whether the baseline values of the COP variables differ between the two experimental conditions. b. List the pieces of information that you were taught to present in the conclusion step of the data analysis protocol, that the authors have not stated in this analysis. c. Is the authors’ claim that the groups are equivalent justified based solely on the information presented in the paper? Briefly justify your answer. Biol/Stat 2244A (FW20) – Lab Assignment 4 Question 2. In the methods section, Jeter et al. state “this study was not powered to detect between group differences following AYT” (page 11). By this they mean that a statistical test comparing the mean change in COP (baseline – post) in the AYT group to the mean change in COP in the waitlist group would have low statistical power. a. Use R to calculate the power of such an analysis to detect a small, medium, and large effect (as defined by Cohen) based on the size of the sample in the study and alpha = 0.05 (as used in the study). Report your R code and output. b. Briefly describe the meaning of your findings from part a. It is not enough to say, “the power is …”. This question asks you to describe in your own words (1 to 3 sentences) what the numbers you calculated mean about what type of statistical test you evaluated and about its usefulness in the situation described. c. Do you agree with the author’s assessment of their power? Briefly justify your response. Question 3. In the discussion, Jeter et al. conduct a power analysis to plan for future studies. They use the effect size for Foam_EO measured in their study, and a desired power of 0.8 and alpha of 0.05. They calculate the sample size required for a future study which would compare the change in COP in the AYT group to the change in COP in the waitlist group (page 14). They plan for a slightly different type of test than you have learned (an ANCOVA). a. What type of power analysis is this: a priori or post hoc? Write one sentence to justify your answer. b. Use R to calculate the effect size, d, based on the mean change in Foam_EO in the AYT group, the mean change in Foam_EO in the waitlist group (both given in Table 4) and a standard deviation of 5.8 (report R code and output): > lab3data$delta_FoamEO <- lab3data$Foam_EO_baseline - lab3data$Foam_EO_post > sd(lab3data$delta_FoamEO) [1] 5.781177 c. Use R to calculate the required sample size for a t test comparing the difference between two means based on the effect size you calculated in part b and other parameters specified in this question. Report your R code and output and write one sentence describing your findings. Question 4. In the introduction, Jeter et al. describe two competing hypotheses related to COP. Minimization hypothesis: “a reduction in absolute COP displacement would imply greater postural stability. … Therefore, COP minimization as an indicator of greater stability and reduced fall risk is often cited in the literature” (page 3). This is the hypothesis that was presented to you in the video at the start of lab 2. 4 Biol/Stat 2244A (FW20) – Lab Assignment 4 Stabilization hypothesis: “[relative to normal adults] COP can be reduced in clinical populations at risk of falls such as Parkinson’s patients [and] lower leg amputees. … [COP] can be increased after significant balance training such as Tai Chi and other forms of exercise. … While the mechanism for COP changes after training is not clear, it is possible that individuals develop corrective strategies to down-weight unreliable and up-weight reliable information.” The last sentence about down-weighting and up?weighting information is a reference to the author’s overall theory that balance is maintained based on input from the somatosensory system (senses such as pressure, pain, or heat which can occur anywhere in the body), the vestibular system (inner ear structures that are instrumental in balance in mammals) and the visual system. Perhaps exercise training increases body awareness and thus makes people respond more decisively (higher COP) when one of those systems that they trust to be reliable tells them they are losing balance. Look at the first eight rows of Table 4 in the paper. The column on the right measures effect size using a statistic (η: “eta”) that differs from the d and h statistics that you were introduced to. However, like d and h, higher values of η indicate a larger effect. Do the results in Table 4 support one hypothesis (minimization or stabilization) more than the other? Refer to specific findings from different columns to justify your answer. Marking Rubric Most of the questions in Assignment 4 have correct vs. incorrect answers and/or approaches. Consequently, the marking scheme for evaluating your answers to certain questions may often have a single ‘right’ answer/approach for which we are looking. However, how we use R to explore, summarize, and analyze our data can, to some degree, vary in technique. That is, there may be more than one way to ask R to complete a particular ‘task’. So, what does this mean for a student trying to understand expectations when completing this Assignment? In addition to the “Reminders/Tips for Success” provided on pages 2-3 of this file, consider the following general criteria for different types of questions/marking; these criteria will likely play a heavy role in evaluating the answers submitted for the Assignment: Criteria for R code and output ? Selection of data, variables, and subsets is relevant to the question or task; ? Choice of R functions is relevant and appropriate (demonstrating an understanding of the analysis being conducted) for the question, task, and/or type of data being summarized/analyzed; ? Reported R code for any numbered question is complete and would function (i.e. reproduce the output included/described in the answer) if it were copied/pasted into R and run. ? Reported R code uses brief #comments to help interpret the purpose of more complex commands/functions Criteria for ‘other’ questions (i.e. identifying, describing, explaining, discussing, etc.) ? Knowledge: use and application of relevant statistical vocabulary/concepts demonstrates an accurate understanding of those concepts; that is, the vocabulary/concepts are used/applied in a manner that is consistent with the definition/understanding. The use moves beyond simply defining the concepts, but actually applies them to the situation. This criterion also connects to whether an answer is consistent with any expectations/guidelines communicated in course content (e.g. lectures). 5 Biol/Stat 2244A (FW20) – Lab Assignment 4 ? Connections/Justification: Answer demonstrates (through explanation and/or description, where appropriate) the relevance or relationship of choices made/vocabulary used to the question(s) or situation. That is, it’s clear WHY you have made the choices you did, and these choices make logical sense. ? Completeness: Answer provides enough detail (whether in written answers or visual content) that another, knowledgeable individual can understand and/or recognize the application of the concepts, without ambiguity or doubt. This also refers to whether the answer has addressed all aspects of the question. ? Communication: Answer uses clear and concise language, and thoughtful organization of ideas to facilitate readability and understanding. That is, we do not have to re-read your answer multiple times to try to understand what you are saying.

在線客服

售前咨詢
售后咨詢
微信號
Essay_Cheery
微信
专业essay代写|留学生论文,作业,网课,考试|代做功課服務-PROESSAY HKG 专业留学Essay|Assignment代写|毕业论文代写-rushmyessay,绝对靠谱负责 代写essay,代写assignment,「立减5%」网课代修-Australiaway 代写essay,代写assignment,代写PAPER,留学生论文代写网 毕业论文代写,代写paper,北美CS代写-编程代码,代写金融-第一代写网 作业代写:CS代写|代写论文|统计,数学,物理代写-天天论文网 提供高质量的essay代写,Paper代写,留学作业代写-天才代写 全优代写 - 北美Essay代写,Report代写,留学生论文代写作业代写 北美顶级代写|加拿大美国论文作业代写服务-最靠谱价格低-CoursePass 论文代写等留学生作业代做服务,北美网课代修领导者AssignmentBack