Page 1 The University of Sydney

INFO5992 Understanding IT
Innovation Report
Rola Fanousse
Semester 2, 2021
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Individual Report
Announcement Date (Discussion) Monday Aug 30, 2021 (6:00PM)
Week 4
Upload Date Monday Aug 30, 2021 (8:00PM)
Week 4
Due Date Sunday Oct 24, 2021 (11:59 Sydney time)
Week 10
Week Assessed Week 1-9
Outcome Assessed LO1, LO2, LO3, LO4, LO5, LO6, LO7, LO8, LO9
Topics Assessed One or more of the following topics may be assessed:
? Importance of Innovation to a Country
? General Purpose Technologies
? Dynamics of IT Innovation
? Dominant Design
? Disruptive Innovation
? Innovator’s Dilemma
? Value Chain & Value Network
? Open Innovation & Distributed Innovation
? Customer Development Process
? Value Proposition Canvas
? Business Model Canvas
Weight 30%
Individual Assessment Yes
Format Report (PDF) – To be uploaded to Canvas
Description Student will select one technology (form a list), one industry (from a list) and two related real-world
companies, in which they would apply concepts and frameworks from week 1-3. More detail will be
available in a separate document.

Innovation Research Report
Individual Report

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– Select one technology from the list provided below.
– Select one industry from the list provided below
– Select two companies in your selected industry that have developed
and deployed the technology to the industry.
– You may choose companies at various stages: revenue-generating,
market-ready product, in-field/ lab prototype, or early-stage R&D.
– If you select companies that do not have customers, you may have
difficulties with Section 5 of the assignment where you have to build
a Business Model Canvas (eg you may not find evidence of the
customer segments which the company is targeting or planning to
The University of Sydney Page 7

Innovation Report – Learning Objectives

– Research into an emerging technology
– Research into companies which are developing and/or deploying the
technology in the industry
– Application and critical analyses of innovation concepts for an emerging

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Report Structure – Total word limit of 3,000 words

% of

Section 1

? Define and describe your selected technology
? Assess the current and future development of the selected technology
? Discuss about how the technology is applied to your selected industry

Refer to the
instructions about how
you can select your
technology from a
predefined list.

Note that the total word
limit is 3,000 words,
excluding references
and charts.
Section 2
Importance to Australia
& Role of Government

? Discuss about the actual and potential impact of the selected technology to Australia as a
? Discuss about the role of the Australian government in the development and
commercialization of the selected technology
Section 3
Diffusion of Innovation 15%
? Evaluate the rate of adoption of the selected technology
? Evaluate which stage the selected technology lies in the Technology Adoption Lifecycle Model

Section 4
Dominant Design

? Define and describe a product category which is enabled by your selected technology
? Evaluate whether there is a dominant design for the product category.
o If there is a dominant design, describe the architecture which is adopted and another
architecture which was not adopted.
o If there is no dominant design, describe at least two architectures that are part of the
design competition.
? Apply the Technology Cycle for the product category, including its key aspects and the
variation and selection process of the design competition.

Section 5
Business Model Canvas

? Apply the nine building blocks of the Business Model Canvas to both of your selected
o Refer to the lecture slides for the nine building blocks and what you should
focus on applying for each building block.
o Your work should be presented in the standard Business Model Canvas format
which can be found in this document 4 pages below.
o Since you have two companies and each canvas is one-page, you should end
up with 2 pages for this section.

The words in the
Business Model
Canvas count towards
the total word limit of
3,000 words.
N/A 5% Quality of writing, referencing, written communication.
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Notes for the Report

– Figures (images or diagrams), tables and quotes are typically very effective
in an essay. Please use them, but only if it adds useful information to your
report. If you do, you must reference the source of the information.
– You are encouraged to create your own figures and tables. If you do, show
that you created them (e.g., “created by First name Surname for
– When referring to a figures / tables, make sure appropriate description is
given so that they are understandable – figures / tables contain a lot of
– There is no template – please use a template of your own choice. It is OK
for the text to be either single-spaced or double-spaced.
– Use Harvard or Vancouver referencing style – keep your referencing style
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Notes for the Report

– Sources:
– Read widely; read journal articles (eg online through the library), online
magazines and high quality blogs.
– Using reliable scholarly sources – innovation literature
– Wikipedia is highly variable in quality, derivative and typically not a
good source for your essay (except perhaps for gaining a general
understanding before reading more deeply from the literature or high-
quality blogs)
– Company websites are rarely unbiased descriptions of examples
(though may provide some useful information that should be understood
in its context)
– There are tips on library use (and referencing) at

List of Industries


Select one industry from the Global Industry Classification Standard:

? Refer to:
? You may select a “Sector”, “Industry Group”, “Industry” or “Sub-Industry”
? It depends on how specific you’d like your selection to be.

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Technology Topics

Technology selection

Select a technology from the following list:
1. 2-way brain-computer interface
2. Generative artificial intelligence
3. Nanosatellites
4. Federated learning
5. Explainable artificial intelligence
6. DNA Computing and storage
7. Differential learning
8. Electric Smart-Grid & Micro-Grid
9. Green Technology

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Students are not allowed to use this description in section one of their assignment. This only
serves as an introduction with the sole purpose of helping students to select a technology. The University of Sydney Page 15

2-Way Brain-Computer Interface
Technology 1 (out of 9)

BCI is a type of user interface in which there is a direct communication link
between the brain and an external device. This connection is a two-way
link, or bidirectional. One direction involves sending brain activity to a
computer, and the computer translating brain activity into motor
commands. Communication can also happen in the other direction – where
the computer sends information directly to the brain
Students are not allowed to use this description in section one of their assignment. This only
serves as an introduction with the sole purpose of helping students to select a technology. The University of Sydney Page 16

Generative Artificial Intelligence
Technology 2 (out of 9)

Generative AI generate new, artificial data based on a data distribution
derived from training data. Unlike discriminative AI which evaluates
candidates and discriminates between different kinds of data instances,
generative AI generate new data instances. Generative AI can generate
new images, natural language, code, human speech and more.
Students are not allowed to use this description in section one of their assignment. This only
serves as an introduction with the sole purpose of helping students to select a technology. The University of Sydney Page 17

Technology 3 (out of 9)

Nanosatellites are small satellites that are deployed to low-earth orbit (LEO) at
an altitude of between 160 to 2,000km for a range of missions, including earth
observation (imaging), communication, and PNT (positioning, navigation &
timing). Unlike traditional satellites that are large and heavy, nanosatellites are
small, light, cheaper and faster to manufacture, and easier to launch. A network
of nanosatellites can provide continuous, global coverage and may prove to be
superior compared to current alternatives.
Students are not allowed to use this description in section one of their assignment. This only
serves as an introduction with the sole purpose of helping students to select a technology. The University of Sydney Page 18

Federated Learning
Technology 4 (out of 9)

Federated Learning enables the training of machine learning models
across multiple decentralised edge devices or servers holding local
training data. It allows separate edge devices to collaboratively learn a
shared model while keeping all training data on individual devices. This is
contrasted with standard machine learning where the data and training
process is centralised at a central server.
Students are not allowed to use this description in section one of their assignment. This only
serves as an introduction with the sole purpose of helping students to select a technology. The University of Sydney Page 19

Explainable Artificial Intelligence
Technology 5 (out of 9)

Recent years have seen significant advances in the capabilities of artificial
intelligence – being able to produce highly accurate results (e.g. predictions).
However, they are also highly complex, if not outright opaque, rendering their
workings difficult to interpret. There is a need to understand how AI works, and
how and why a particular decision was reached. Explainable AI addresses the
issues of “black-box models” by making AI interpretable, explainable,
transparent, justifiable and contestable.
Students are not allowed to use this description in section one of their assignment. This only
serves as an introduction with the sole purpose of helping students to select a technology. The University of Sydney Page 20

DNA Computing and Storage
Technology 6 (out of 9)

DNA Computing and Storage use DNA and biochemistry in place of
silicon or quantum architectures to perform computation and store data.
The data is encoded into synthetic DNA for storage and enzymes enable
processing through chemical reactions. DNA Computing and Storage will
transform data storage, processing parallelism and computing efficiency.
Students are not allowed to use this description in section one of their assignment. This only
serves as an introduction with the sole purpose of helping students to select a technology. The University of Sydney Page 21

Differential Privacy
Technology 7 (out of 9)

Differential Privacy enables privacy-preserving data analysis so that
data can be collected, shared and analysed whilst preserving the privacy
of individuals. It applies noise functions of certain characteristics to
datasets or query results so that no specifics of individual records present
in the original dataset are revealed, while simultaneously allowing the
dataset to provide insights through data analytics.
Students are not allowed to use this description in section one of their assignment. This only
serves as an introduction with the sole purpose of helping students to select a technology. The University of Sydney Page 22

Electric Smart Grid & Micro-Grid
Technology 8 (out of 9)

Conventional electricity grid is a centralised system that transfers high-voltage power from various
generation stations to sub-stations through transmission lines. This centralised system delivers power
from the generation station to consumers in a uni-directional flow. As Distributed Energy Sources
(such as renewable energy) are integrated to conventional electricity grids, severe supply
fluctuations occur due to variability in the supply of energy from renewable energy sources. These
fluctuations can cause issues with reliability and quality of power and increase the risk of damage
to network infrastructure. Smart Electric Grid enables decentralised generation and distribution of
electricity from distributed sources of energy across the electricity system network, and networks of
localised grids known as Micro-Grids may provide self-sufficient systems for individual communities
that can operate independently.
Students are not allowed to use this description in section one of their assignment. This only
serves as an introduction with the sole purpose of helping students to select a technology. The University of Sydney Page 23

Green Technology
Technology 9 (out of 9)

Green technology refers to any technology which reduces or eliminates
the impact of human activities on the environment with a view to protect
the environment, reverse/repair damage already done to the enrionment,
and conserve the Earth’s natural resources.

Examples of Green Technology include renewable energy, recycling and
waste management, and wastewater treatment.

Business Model Canvas Template

You are not required to use
this specific template from

However, you are expected
to present your Business
Model Canvas in the same
format -- in terms of the
relative positions of the
different building blocks.

For example, the Value
Proposition is in the middle
of the canvas, Customer
Segment on the right side
with Customer Relationships
and Channels in-between
and Revenue Streams
expanding across all four
blocks at the bottom.

There is a logical sequence
to the canvas. Refer to the
lecture recording where we
introduce the canvas in the
correct logical sequence.


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Submission Notes
– Submit your Innovation Report by Week 10 Sunday Oct 24, 2021 (11:59pm Sydney
– The essay must be submitted electronically through Canvas and must be submitted in
PDF format.
– It will go through Turnitin
– The electronic submission must be accompanied by a signed individual assessment
coversheet (either in the same file or in a separate file) available from:
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Word limit

– Students that exceed the word limit will attract a penalty of 10% for every
100 words that are over the word limit
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Late Submission Penalties

– Suppose you hand in work after the deadline
– If you have not been granted special consideration or arrangements:
– In accordance with University Policy, the penalty comprises deduction of 5%
of the maximum mark for each calendar day after the due date.
– After ten calendar days late, a mark of zero will be awarded.
– The penalty will be calculated by first marking the work, and then subtracting
5% of the maximum awardable mark for each calendar day after the due
– Submit early; you can resubmit if there is time before the deadline
– Each semester, there are always unfortunate cases – if any issues with the
submission, email BEFORE the submission time as a proof

Finding the right References

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– Find journal articles or high-quality online sources on the topic
– News / Magazine / Editorial articles can be used to support your topic, e.g.,
used as an example
– Consultancy reports e.g., HBR, McKinsey are OK, especially as they
introduce newer topics / examples
– If in doubt about quality of reading, please check with your teaching team
– Note: Be careful in how you treat information from companies (such as press
releases, product websites, whitepapers) as they may be biased!)
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– University Library
– Google Scholar
– Google
– Be careful of identifying reliable sources

– ! Wikipedia – perhaps only for you to read and understand
The University of Sydney Page 33

Reference Management Software
– Make maintaining references and creating bibliographies easy
– EndNote:
? Free for Uni of Sydney staff and students
? For Windows, Mac
? Plug-in for MS Word
– Zotero:
? Free, open source
? For Windows, Mac, Linux, …
? Plug-in for Firefox, MS Word, Open Office
– Many others:
The University of Sydney Page 34

Other resources


Academic dishonesty and

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Academic dishonesty and plagiarism

? Please read the University policy on Academic Honesty carefully:
? All cases of academic dishonesty and plagiarism will be investigated
? There is a new process and a centralized University system and database
? Three types of offenses:
? Plagiarism – when you copy from another student, website or other source. This
includes copying the whole assignment or only a part of it.
? Academic dishonesty – when you make your work available to another student
to copy (the whole assignment or a part of it). There are other examples of
academic dishonesty.
? Misconduct - when you engage another person to complete your assignment (or
a part of it), for payment or not. This is a very serious matter and the Policy
requires that your case is forwarded to the University Registrar for investigation.
The University of Sydney Page 37


? The penalties are severe and include:
1) a permanent record of academic dishonesty, plagiarism and misconduct in the
University database and on your student file
2) mark deduction, ranging from 0 for the assignment to Fail for the course
3) expulsion from the University and cancelling of your student visa

? Do not confuse legitimate co-operation and cheating! You can discuss the
assignment with another student, this is a legitimate collaboration, but you
cannot complete the assignment together – everyone must write their own
code or report, unless the assignment is group work.
? When there is copying between students, note that both students are
penalised – the student who copies and the student who makes his/her work
available for copying
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? We will use the similarity detection software TurnItIn and MOSS to compare
your assignments with these of other students (current and previous) and
the Internet
? Turnitin is for text documents:
? MOSS is for programming code:
? These tools are extremely good!
? e.g. MOSS cannot be fooled by changing the names of the variables or
changing the order of the conditions in if-else statements
? Examples of plagiarism in programming code:
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Student excuses

? All these are cases of plagiarism and academic dishonesty we have seen in
our school
? The student excuses are not acceptable:
? I sat the test and then posted the questions and solutions to my friends whose
test was later in the week. I only wanted to help them understand the concepts
that are examinable.
? I posted parts of my code on my web page (or the group discussion forum)
because my solution was cool (or I wanted to help them). I didn’t expect them to
copy it.
? I tried to do the assignment on my own but I had problems with the extension
part that I couldn’t fix, so I submitted my core part and his extension part. I didn’t
? I finished my assignment but my friend had family problems. I felt sorry for her,
so I gave her my assignment as an example. She said she only wanted to have
a look and promised not to copy it.
The University of Sydney Page 40

Students excuses (2)

? The test has finished but the tutor hasn’t collected the papers yet. I showed my
answer to my friend. I didn’t expect him to copy it.
? He is my best friend. I had no choice but to let him copy my assignment.
? I couldn’t find a partner to work in pairs, so I joined their pair as they are my
friends (when only groups of maximum of 2 students are allowed – illegitimate
The University of Sydney Page 41

Key message

? Plagiarism and any form of academic dishonesty will be dealt with, and the
penalties are severe
? We use plagiarism detection systems such as MOSS that are extremely
good. If you cheat, the chances you will be caught are very high.
? If someone asks you to see or copy your assignment, or to complete the
assignment instead of them, just say: I can’t do this - we can both be thrown
out of the University. I will not risk my future by doing this.

Be smart and don’t risk your future by engaging in plagiarism and
academic dishonesty!



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